Word of the Day: LUN

Stands for “Logical Unit Number.” LUNs are used to identify SCSI devices, such as external hard drives, connected to a computer. Each device is assigned a LUN, from 0 to 7, which serves as the device’s unique address.

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LUNs can also be used for identifying virtual hard disk partitions, which are used in RAID configurations. For example, a single hard drive may be partitioned into multiple volumes. Each volume can then be assigned a unique LUN. However, few modern computers use LUNs, since SCSI devices have mostly been replaced by USB and Firewire devices.

– definition from TechTerms

Word of the Day: MANET

Stands for “Mobile Ad Hoc Network.” A MANET is a type of ad hoc network that can change locations and configure itself on the fly. Because MANETS are mobile, they use wireless connections to connect to various networks. This can be a standard Wi-Fi connection, or another medium, such as a cellular or satellite transmission.

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Some MANETs are restricted to a local area of wireless devices (such as a group of laptop computers), while others may be connected to the Internet. For example, A VANET (Vehicular Ad Hoc Network), is a type of MANET that allows vehicles to communicate with roadside equipment. While the vehicles may not have a direct Internet connection, the wireless roadside equipment may be connected to the Internet, allowing data from the vehicles to be sent over the Internet. The vehicle data may be used to measure traffic conditions or keep track of trucking fleets. Because of the dynamic nature of MANETs, they are typically not very secure, so it is important to be cautious what data is sent over a MANET.

– definition from TechTerms

Word of the Day: Half-Duplex

Half-duplex is a type of communication in which data can flow back and forth between two devices, but not simultaneously. Each device in a half-duplex system can send and receive data, but only one device can transmit at a time.

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An example of a half-duplex device is a CB (citizens band) radio. The CB protocol, which is used by truckers, police officers, and other mobile personnel, allows users to communicate back and forth on a specific radio frequency. However, since the CB protocol only supports half-duplex communication, only person can speak at a time. This is why people communicating over two-way radios often say “over” at the end of each statement. It is a simple way of telling the recipient he or she can respond if necessary.

Most communication protocols are designed to be full-duplex, rather than half duplex. Full-duplex communication allows computers and other devices to communicate back and forth at the same. While some computer networks can be set to half-duplex mode to limit bandwidth, full-duplex communication is much more common.

NOTE: Half-duplex is sometimes abbreviated “HDX.”

– definition from TechTerms

Word of the day: IMAP

Stands for “Internet Message Access Protocol” and is pronounced “eye-map.” It is a method of accessing e-mail messages on a server without having to download them to your local hard drive. This is the main difference between IMAP and another popular e-mail protocol called “POP3.” POP3 requires users to download messages to their hard drive before reading them. The advantage of using an IMAP mail server is that users can check their mail from multiple computers and always see the same messages. This is because the messages stay on the server until the user chooses to download them to his or her local drive. Most webmail systems are IMAP based, which allows people to access to both their sent and received messages no matter what computer they use to check their mail.

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Most e-mail client programs such as Microsoft Outlook and Mac OS X Mail allow you to specify what kind of protocol your mail server uses. If you use your ISP’s mail service, you should check with them to find out if their mail server uses IMAP or POP3 mail. If you enter the wrong protocol setting, your e-mail program will not be able to send or receive mail.

– definition from TerchTerms

Word of the Day: Rendering

Rendering is the process of generating a final digital product from a specific type of input. The term usually applies to graphics and video, but it can refer to audio as well.

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1. Graphics

3D graphics are rendered from basic three-dimensional models called wireframes. A wireframe defines the shape of the model, but nothing else. The rendering process adds surfaces, textures, and lighting to the model, giving it a realistic appearance. For example, a 3D drawing application or a CAD program may allow you to add different colors, textures, and lighting sources to a 3D model. The rendering process applies these settings to the object.

Thanks to the power of modern GPUs, 3D image rendering is often done in real-time. However, with high-resolution models, surfaces and lighting effects may need to be rendered using a specific “Render” command. For example, a CAD program may display low-resolution models while you are editing a scene, but provide an option to render a detailed model that you can export.

2. Video

3D animations and other types of video that contain CGI often need to be rendered before viewing the final product. This includes the rendering of both 3D models and video effects, such as filters and transitions. Video clips typically contain 24 to 60 frames per second (fps), and each frame must be rendered before or during the export process. High-resolution videos or movies can take several minutes or even several hours to render. The rendering time depends on several factors including the resolution, frame rate, length of the video, and processing power.

While video clips often need to be pre-rendered, modern GPUs are capable of rendering many types of 3D graphics in real-time. For example, it is common for computers to render high-definition video game graphics at over 60 fps. Depending on the graphics power, a game’s frame rate may be faster or slower. If the GPU cannot render at least 30 frames per second, the video game may appear choppy.

3. Audio

Like video effects, audio effects can also be rendered. For example, a DAW application may include effects like reverb, chorus, and auto-tune. The CPU may be able to render these effects in real-time, but if too many tracks with multiple effects are being played back at once, the computer may not be able to render the effects in real-time. If this happens, the effects can be pre-rendered, or applied to the original audio track. All effects are rendered when the final mix is exported or “bounced” as an audio file.

– definition from TechTerms

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